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How Web Browser Communicate With Web Server?

Updated 2023-10-18 17:50:22

Web browsers serve as our virtual gateways in the interconnected world of the Internet, allowing us to explore the enormous assortment of online websites, services, and information. A complicated and exciting interplay occurs behind the scenes between web browsers and web servers, the two fundamental components that support our online experiences.

This article examines the complicated ballet between web browsers and web servers. We will look at how a web browser communicates with a web server step by step, highlighting the functions that hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) requests and answers play. In addition, we will look at prominent web browsers and their unique features and functionalities.

What is a Web Browser?

Web browsers communicate with web servers using HTTP

A web browser is the entrance to the immense amount of information, services, and applications available on the Internet in the digital age. It is software that enables users to access and interact with web resources such as webpages, multimedia content, and online tools. Online browsers are available for various platforms, including desktop computers, laptops, smartphones, and tablets, allowing you to explore online on a wide range of devices.

The fundamental function of a web browser is to retrieve and render web content in a human-readable way. When a user inputs a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) into the address panel of a browser or clicks on a hyperlink, the browser begins a series of operations to retrieve the browser requests from online servers. These web servers hold the online resources required to build the web page, such as HTML files, photos, videos, and scripts.

Once the browser requests are received, the web browser analyses the underlying code, which is commonly written in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). It displays it in a visually appealing and interactive manner. Other web technologies like CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) for styling and JavaScript for interaction, are also supported by web browsers, enabling dynamic and responsive web experiences.

Web Browser vs. Web Server

Web Browser vs. Web Server

Web browsers and servers are two essential components of web communication that perform independent but complementary roles. Understanding their distinctions and functionalities is critical to understanding how information is exchanged online.

Web Browser

A web browser is a client-side software application that runs on the user's computer, smartphone, or tablet. Its principal function is understanding and displaying web content in a human-readable format. When a user accesses a URL or clicks on a link, the web browser constructs an HTTP request to retrieve the desired resource from the servers web browsers.

Web browsers act as a middleman between users and client server systems, as the interface for interacting with webpages, web apps, and other online services. They have rendering engines that parse HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to display web information visually, pleasingly, and interactively.

The user experience web browsers provide differs depending on criteria such as speed, user interface design, support for web technologies, and security features. Well-known web browsers such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Safari compete to provide the most incredible surfing experience possible, constantly improving their performance and features.

Web Server

The web server, a server-side software responsible for hosting and delivering web resources, sits on the other end of the web communication spectrum. Web servers store web server software files such as HTML, CSS, photos, videos, and other assets and reply to client request messages by transmitting the requested resources as HTTP responses.

When a web browser transmits an HTTP request, the web server receives and processes it, determining which resource is being sought and how to provide the proper answer. To dynamically generate content or manage form submissions, web servers may run server-side scripts, access databases, and conduct other operations.

Web servers act as the Internet's backbone, sending web content to numerous web browser clients worldwide. They are designed to handle several requests simultaneously, ensuring that websites can offer material to consumers effectively and consistently.

2 Types of Web Server

There are two types of web servers to publish a website.

Static web server: It's also known as a stack, is made up of a computer (hardware) and an HTTP server (software). We call it "static" because the server provides its hosted files to your browser in its entirety.

Dynamic web server: It's made up of a static web server and additional software, most often an application server and a database. The term "dynamic" refers to the fact that the application server updates the hosted files before providing content to your browser over the HTTP server.

Step-by-Step: Web Browser and Server Interaction

Relations between a web browser and a web server involve well-defined processes that permit information exchange and delivery of web content. Let's take a look at how web browsers and web servers communicate to fulfill our requests and deliver a flawless browsing experience:

1) User Action

Interaction 1 - User Action

The process begins when a user interacts with a web browser, entering a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) into the address bar or clicking on a hyperlink. The URL is the address of the desired web resource housed on client server systems.

2) Browser Submits the HTTP Request

Interaction 2 - Browser Submits the HTTP Request

After receiving the URL, the web browser constructs an HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) request to fetch the desired resource from the web server. The HTTP request contains critical information such as the request method (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE), the location of the requested resource (URI), and additional headers containing browser-specific information.

The request method specifies the type of action the browser wishes the server to take. A GET request, for example, is used to receive data from the server, but a POST request is applied to send data to the server, commonly used in form submissions.

3) Web Server Handling the Request

Interaction 3 - Web Server Handling the Request

The web server receives and makes the process of the HTTP that the web browser requests. It begins by parsing the request headers to extract important information about the request. The server determines the request method, the location of the requested resource, and any additional data contained in the request headers.

The servers web browsers locate the requested resource based on the Request URI. This could be a static HTML page, a picture, a video, or any other sort of server-stored web content.

4) Sending an HTTP Response

Interaction 4 - Sending an HTTP Response

After identifying the requested resource, the web server generates an HTTP response to transmit back to numerous web browser clients. The HTTP response comprises the following elements:

HTTP Status Code: This code tells how the request was handled. 200 OK (request successfully), 404 Not Found (requested resource not found), and 500 Internal Server issue (server-side issue) are examples of common status codes.

Response Headers: These headers contain additional metadata about the response, such as the resource's content type, caching directives, and server information.

Response Body: The response body contains the requested resource's actual content, such as HTML for a web page, binary data for an image, or any other content type indicated in the response headers.

5) Browser Receive and Render the Response

Interaction 5 - Browser Receive and Render the Response

When the HTTP response is received, the web browser retrieves the response headers to determine the content type and other pertinent information. The received content is subsequently rendered, presenting the web page or resource on the user's screen.

The web browser may also parse the HTML content and request extra resources referenced in the HTML, such as stylesheets, scripts, and graphics. This procedure guarantees that the complete web page, including any interactive components or dynamic content, is properly constructed and presented correctly.

Popular Web Browser

Some popular web browsers

Several web browsers have grown to prominence in the ever-changing world of web browsing, each with its own set of features, functionalities, and user experiences. Let's look at some of the most popular web browsers that have won the hearts of internet users all around the world:

Google Chrome

Google Chrome, created by the tech giant Google, is one of the most well-known web browsers in the world. Chrome, which was launched in 2008, soon gained popularity because of its speed, simplicity, and simple appearance. It makes use of the strong Blink rendering engine as well as the V8 JavaScript engine, which contributes to its outstanding performance and responsiveness.

Chrome provides strong support for new web technologies, making it a fantastic choice for developers and users looking to experience the most recent web advancements. Users can further customize their browsing experience by using the browser's huge library of extensions and add-ons.

Furthermore, Chrome's seamless integration with Google services and products, such as Gmail and Google Drive, boosts productivity for Google ecosystem users. The browser's continuous updates and security measures help to solidify its image as a dependable and secure browsing alternative.

Mozilla Firefox

Mozilla Firefox, an open-source web browser, has long been favored by privacy-conscious users and supporters of an open internet. Firefox, which debuted in 2004, quickly garnered popularity for its dedication to user privacy and data security.

Firefox has a customizable user interface and a plethora of extensions and themes, allowing users to tailor their surfing experience to their needs. The Quantum engine in the browser substantially enhanced its performance, making it faster and more responsive.

The emphasis on user privacy is one of Firefox's distinguishing qualities. The browser incorporates Enhanced Tracking Protection, which by default bans third-party cookies and trackers, providing users with greater control over their online privacy. Furthermore, the Mozilla Foundation's commitment to an open internet has won Firefox a committed user base that values its devotion to web standards and accessibility.

Microsoft Edge

Microsoft Edge, a web browser created by Microsoft, has become the replacement of Internet Explorer as the default web browser for Windows computers networking. Initially launched in 2015 with the EdgeHTML engine, Microsoft Edge underwent a major overhaul in 2020 when it adopted the Chromium engine, the same engine that powers Google Chrome.

With the switch to Chromium, Microsoft Edge gained compatibility with a vast array of web technologies, making it more versatile and user-friendly. The browser's interaction with Microsoft services and functionality, such as easy syncing with Microsoft accounts and Windows devices, is preserved.

Edge prioritizes user security with features like SmartScreen, which assists the protection against malicious websites and downloads. Its clean and modern user interface provides a smooth browsing experience, and the integration of Microsoft's Cortana virtual assistant offers additional convenience to users.


Safari is Apple's default web browser, intended particularly for macOS and iOS devices. Launched in 2003, Safari focuses on energy efficiency and performance, making it a popular choice for Apple users.

As part of Apple's ecosystem, Safari integrates seamlessly with other Apple services and features. For instance, it syncs with iCloud, allowing users to access their bookmarks, history, and open tabs across Apple devices.

Safari's performance is enhanced by its rendering engine, WebKit, which ensures fast loading times and smooth browsing experiences. The browser places a strong emphasis on user privacy and security, incorporating features like Intelligent Tracking Prevention to protect users from intrusive trackers.

Moreover, Safari actively supports web standards and provides developers with a platform for creating cutting-edge web experiences tailored to Apple devices.


Finally, the interaction between web browsers and web servers is at the heart of our modern internet experience. Web browsers, which function as user-facing apps, enable us to navigate the huge virtual terrain, interact with web content, and access a myriad of online resources. Web servers, the Internet's backbone, host and deliver these resources in response to client requests, ensuring a smooth and dynamic surfing experience.